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Wk. 13 (Add new Page) – Indirect Object, Clauses and Phrases, etc.

Today – Indirect Object – The Scary Definition:  An indirect object is a noun or pronoun located between the transitive verb and the direct object that tells to whom or for whom the action is done and who is receiving the direct object. – Yikes! 

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Simple Version:  (Have Heather come up)

Let’s look at a sentence:  Heather gave me a crown.  

Who gave a crown?  Heather – SN

What is being said about Heather? – Heather gave – V

Heather gave what?  Crown

Can Heather replace crown?  No

Does crown describe Heather? – No – DO – Direct Object (receiving the action – remember Mrs. Miller) (makes verb transitive)

NOW – our new concept – Indirect Object – tells (to or for whom) or (to or for what) the action of the verb is done

 

Heather gave a crown for whom or for what?  Me; label “me” an IO – Indirect Object

***The indirect object does not receive the action of the verb.  Heather didn’t give me = she gave “a crown”.

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LISTEN CLOSELY – Ways to remember – (say the following twice) An IO will always come before a DO.  You cannot have an IO without a DO.  You can, however,  have a DO alone as in our first example – Mr. Miller loves Mrs. Miller.

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An IO can be a noun or pronoun – example: Patrick  gave Joshua a crown (we have a proper noun – Joshua).

In the sentence:

Patrick gave me a crown. – “Me” is a pronoun.

That’s not too hard for us!

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PHRASE VS. CLAUSE:

A phrase cannot stand alone in a sentence.  What makes it different from a Subordinate/Dependent Clause (which we’re about to learn about) is that it doesn’t contain both a subject and a verb/predicate.  Normally missing the verb/predicate.

EXAMPLE:  (Prepositional phrases are the most common, but there are many types of phrases – not going to confuse you with all of them.  Here’s an example of a Prep. Phrase:  I am sitting in a car.   – “I am sitting” is a complete sentence – Subject/verb.  “in a car” is not – It is a prepositional phrase – begins with a preposition – “in”, has an Article Adjective “a” and the noun “car”

 

COMPLEX STRUCTURE – SUBORDINATE (DEPENDENT) CLAUSE VS. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: 

-FIRST – What is a clause and what is a phrase?  A clause has a subject and a verb.  Phrases do not – consider a prepositional phrase:  In the kitchen, down the stairs, under the table, over the rainbow(what makes it a prepositional phrase?  Begins with a preposition).  These do not contain a “subject and verb”.  These are all prepositions and objects, not subjects and verbs.

CLAUSE – A subordinate clause is fancy way of saying it is a “dependent clause”.  It has a subject and verb, but cannot stand alone

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INTRO TO SUBORDINATE (DEPENDENT) CLAUSE:

SN         P       V       DO     Vt    A      AJ             DO

EX:  Bailey, who loves animals, owns a Shetland Sheepdog.   (“Who loves animals” cannot stand alone, but it does have a Noun (Pronoun – who) and a verb (loves), so this is considered a “dependent clause” – It cannot stand alone – doesn’t make sense without the rest of the sentence.

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EXAMPLES:

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE:

Independent clause – Rachel studied Essentials for hours.

can  stand alone – Independent (no tree leaning here).

 

SUBORDINATE OR DEPENDENT CLAUSE:

Here are some marker (or clue) words to let us know we have a dependent clause:

afteralthoughasas ifbecausebeforeeven ifeven thoughifin order tosincethoughunlessuntilwhateverwhenwhenever,whether, and while.

Dependent example:  Although Rachel studied Essentials for hours….. (this is now not complete (even though we have a subject – Rachel, and a verb – studied) – we have to add to it to make sense) – Although Rachel studied Essentials for hours, she wanted to study more!

 

– Not so bad – eh?

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NOW – hold on to your seats, no running from the room screaming – here comes the dreaded:

ADJECTIVAL AND ADVERBIAL CLAUSE!!!!!

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE: It’s a clause, so it must have it’s own subject and verb, but an Adverbial Clauses don’t make sense without an independent clause.  Adds extra info. to a sentence – makes it more interesting.

Adverbial clauses are connected to their independent sentences with a subordinating conjunction – that’s where http://www.asia.wub (what does that stand for? – when, while, where, as, since, if, although, whereas, unless,  because)  comes in.

An adverbial clause has a single adverb that answers an adverb question: How, When, Where, Why. 

 

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Here’s a wrap-up:

An adverbial clause will meet three requirements:

  • First, it will contain a subject and verb.
  • You will also find a subordinate conjunction that keeps the clause from expressing a complete thought (www.asia.wub)
  • Finally, you will notice that the clause answers one of these three adverb questions: How? When? or Why?

Read these examples:

Grace scrubbed the bathroom tile as if the Queen of England was coming to view it.

How did Grace scrub? As if the Queen of England was coming to view it, an adverb clause.

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Micah’s three cats bolted from the driveway because they saw her car turn the corner.

Why did the cats bolt? Because they saw her car turn the corner, an adverb clause.

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After her appointment at the orthodontist,  Bethany cooked eggs for dinner since she could easily chew an omelet.

Why did  Bethany cook eggs? since she could easily chew an omelet, an adverb clause.

NOW – Adjectival Clause:

Adjectives answer the question:  What kind? How many?, Which?, Whose?

An Adjective clause (also known as an Adjectival or Relative – meaning relating to) clause meets 4 requirements:

An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will meet three requirements:

  • First, it will contain a subject and verb.
  • Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [whowhomwhosethat, or which] or a relative adverb [whenwhere, or why].
  • Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
  •  
  • An Adjectival Clause cannot stand alone.

Here are some examples:

Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie

Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb.

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That bounced across the kitchen floor

That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.

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Who hiccupped for seven hours afterward.

Who = relative pronoun functioning as subject; hiccupped = verb.

ADJECTIVAL/ADVERBIAL CLAUSE  PRACTICE IN CLASS (verbal)!

Are these Adjective or Adverb clauses:

***Adjectives answer:  What kind? How many?, Which?, Whose?

  • Can begin with: whowhomwhosethat, which,

Adverbs answer: How, When, Where, Why. 

(When, while, where, as, since, if, although, whereas, unless, because)

1.  Is it an adverb or adjective clause

2.  What is the clause

3.  What word is it modifying (describing)

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CLAUSE IS UNDERLINED and MODIFIED WORD IN BOX:

1.  When I delivered the newspaper, I saw  Grace at the window.   (Adverb Clause)

2.  Math, which is Connor’s favorite subject,  has always been easy for him.   (Adjective)

3.  That dog that Rachel found belongs to the neighbor.  (Adjective)

4.  Is that the jacket that Micah wants to buy? ( Adjective)

5. Because Heather was so helpful, I praised her to her Mom.  (adverb)

6.  Is this the letter that Jonah was expecting?  (Adjective)

7.  Mrs. Miller took a nap while Bethany and Bailey cleaned the classroom.  (adverb)

8.  Although I’d never seen Josh’s  house before, I felt right at home there.  (Adverb)

 

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